Makhraj/Makhaarij/Emission Points/Rules of Makhaarij Edit
Makhraj is one of the Basis of Tajweed, which the rest of the rules and systems rely on.
Using Makhraj means having the correct position of the organs of speech in order to produce a letter so that it can be differentiated from others. This is equally so whether the letter is a consonant or a vowel.
Being able to recite the letters correctly is the foundation of tajweed, and this is achieved by knowing where the sound originates. This can then help in practising the pronunciation of the letters correctly.
The oral cavity al-Jawf اﻟﺠَﻮف
This is all the empty space that occurs from the chest, up the throat and out through the mouth. It is the makhraj of the long vowels sounds (also known as the elongated letters) and is elongated for 2 counts:
The throat al-Halq اﻟﺤَﻠﻖ
In the throat there are 3 Makhaarij and each one has 2 letters:
The tongue al-Lissaan اﻟﻠِّﺴَﺎن
al-Lissaan has many letters come from the mouth: that is the tongue and its connection with the different areas of the teeth and mouth. There are 4 main makhaarij that can be divided into 10 sub-categories:
The furthest back part of the tongue - Known as Aqsa-al-Lisaan this has 2 sub categories:
Qaaf ق is pronounced by the extreme back of the tongue touching the upper palate to create a thick sound in the tonsils vicinity, with a round sound.
Kaaf ك - The makhraj is slightly in front of the Qaaf ق. This time the tongue should not meet the upper palate other than what is necessary to pronounce the letter. So the sound still comes from the back of the tongue, except this time the tongue is not elevated.
The middle of the tongue - Known as Wast-al-Lisaan this single makhraj covers 3 letters: Jeem ج, Yaa ى, Sheen ش. These are all pronounced when the middle part of the tongue comes in contact with what lies opposite to it from the roof of the mouth.
The side of the tongue - this has 2 specific points of articulation - Known as Haafat-al-Lisaan:
Daad ض -The rear side of the tongue touches the upper back teeth (upper molars) in either one of 3 ways: from the right side, from the left side OR from both sides. The left side of the tongue is most commonly used as it is easier than the right, and usage of both sides of the tongue is rare
Raa ر is Located behind the makhraj of the Noon
The tip of the tongue - Known as Tarafa-al-Lisaan
Tua ط, Taa ت, Daal د, all pretty much come from the same Makhraj/Place. The difference between them is slight but important. The tip of the tongue meets the base of the top front teeth(place where the gums and teeth meet):
Taa ت is most forward and exact at the point where the gums and teeth meet
Daal د is a little further back
Tua ط Is behind the Daal د a little. The back of the tongue should also meet the upper palate as it is a thick letter.
Seen س, Zaaز, Suad ص,
Zaa ز - For this letter, the teeth should be pressed together that the air passage sounds like a buzzing sound
Seen س - The tip the tongue should meet the place where the gums and lower teeth meet. You should allow the flow of air in the mouth to pass from the back to the front and exit from between the teeth
Suad ص - The back of the tongue elevates to meet the the upper palate as it is a thick letter.
Zua ظ, Dhaal ذ, Thaa ث
Thaa ث - Is articulated by putting pressure on the edge of the 2 upper incisor teeth
Zua ظ - Is articulated by putting pressure on the edge of the roots of the upper incisors teeth. The back of the tongue elevates to meet the upper palate as it is a thick letter
Dhaal ذ - Is articulated by putting pressure on the mid-section of the 2 upper incisor teeth
The lips Ash-shafataan اﻟﺸَّﻔَﺘﺎن
This is simply the lips, and has 2 sub-categories:
When one lip is used
Faa ف - The edge of the upper front teeth meet the in side lower lip (the wet part).
When two lips are used
Waw و - This is not the of elongation from the jawf. This letter will carry a harakaat. It is pronounced by the incomplete joining of both lips.
Meem م - Pronounced by the meeting of the dry outer parts of the lips, and pushing air through the nasal passage.
Baa ب - Pronounced by pressing the lips together firmly and quickly. Similar to the letter but there is more of a bounce as you press the lips then quickly release them again.
The nasal cavity al-Khayshoom اﻟﺨَﻴﺸُﻮم
The nasal cavity is located at the furthest point of the nose (the bridge of the nose). It is the opening that connects the mouth with the nose. This connection is where the ghunnah exits. The ghunnah is a sound that is resonated and the tongue is not used to produce it. The duration of the ghunnah sound is for 2 counts. The letter for this rule is noon ن and meem م. See: Rules for Noon Saakin, Rules for Tanween/Ihkaam al-Noon al-Saakina wal-Tanween.
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